The sounds you use in your every track have their own distinct character. Whether they come from VSTs, sample packs, or your audio interface, the quality that makes them unique is known as timbre. Timbre is a basic idea in music that impacts everything from sound design to arrangement and mixing. With such a basic topic it can be tough to know where to begin. So, what is timbre in music production and the way it’s relevant to your workflow? We will explore in this article.
What is timbre in music production?
Timbre (pronounced TAM-ber) is known as the tone color or texture of a sound. It’s the quality of sound that allows you to tell the difference between two instruments playing the same note.
Timbre is difficult to explain because it’s influenced by many different mechanisms in music perception and cognition.
Even so, understanding what makes two tones completely different from one another will allow you to make decisions about the sounds in your music.
What makes up a sound’s timbre?
Five basic characteristics contribute to a sound’s timbre.
We’ll go through each characteristic of Timbre and explain how they work together.
Noisiness vs. Tonality
We must say that it’s easy to tell the difference between a cymbal crash and a synth lead? One is percussive and noisy, the other one is rich and sustained with a clear pitch center.
The biggest difference between the two is the quality of the pitch.
When you can clear a sound’s pitch as a letter of the musical alphabet, it means it’s periodic. That’s when the essential pattern of the waveform repeats over and over again with the same shape.
Think of a basic square wave like the one you might use to create a lead or bass sound in your synth.
Even in case, you change its frequency or amplitude, the wave’s basic shape will stay the same.
The other is an aperiodic sound like the cymbal crash.
Even when you produced a sustained tone with the cymbal, the basic pattern of its waveform would never repeat itself.
Looking on an oscilloscope, the wave would seem random with unpredictable peaks and valleys.
The more aperiodic the sound, the more noisy and discordant it seems.
Even so, aperiodic sounds are essential in music. Struck percussion-like snares and hi-hats are aperiodic—attempt to imagine modern music without those!
The balance between noisiness and tunefulness in a sound is one of the easiest timbral qualities to pay attention to.
Any complicated sound—periodic or aperiodic—is made up of a basic frequency and overtones that resonate above it.
The combination of a sound’s fundamental with all its overtones makes up the way it sounds overall.
The pattern, structure, and intensity of the harmonics in a sound determine so much about their timbre.
If a sound’s overtones appear above its fundamental at regular intervals, it’s harmonic. In case the overtones are randomly scattered above the fundamental, it’s inharmonic.
Dense harmonic overtones contribute to the richness and tunefulness of a musical sound.
For an instant, the sweet, resonant tone of a bowed cello string is a highly harmonic sound rich in harmonic overtones.
The quality of a sound’s overtones and its intensity decide a lot about its timbre.
The initial moments of a sound are extremely essential for how your brain judges musical timbre.
In audio, these brief bursts of sound at the onset are known as transients.
Transients are key for the systems in your brain that allow you to identify the source of a sound.
These systems likely developed to help our ancestors recognize hazards quickly and react in time.
A sound’s transients could be aperiodic even when the rest of it has a periodic structure.
This means that the initial moments of a sound can give it a completely different timbre general.
A sound’s amplitude envelope is the way its intensity evolves.
In synthesis, an envelope could be applied to any parameter in a patch, however, it’s mostly linked to the amplifier to control volume.
For example, the slow attack time of an atmospheric pad sound means that it fades in smoothly before reaching full volume.
Sounds in the actual world have an amplitude envelope as well. Some sounds are sharp and decay quickly while others gradually build and sustain as they ring out.
The envelope also helps give your brain clues about the source of a sound, so it’s an essential factor in timbre.